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By Klaus Danzer

Basics of Analytical Chemistry tend to be provided as a sum of chemical and actual foundations, legislation, axioms and equations for analytical tools and techniques. against this, this e-book offers a practice-oriented, common guiding conception legitimate for all tools and strategies. The metrological foundations integrated outline strictly the figures of advantage with a purpose to reduce confusions nonetheless showing in Analytical Chemistry guides at the present time.

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However, it is not really a desirable to be independent among the scientiˇc or chemical disciplines and is not a disadvantage to be thought of as an auxiliary science. In some respects, various respectable sciences like mathematics, physics, and biology have a service function, too. Therefore, the question about independence is relative and of secondary importance. In contrast to classical analysis, the concept of modern analytical chemistry has changed in so far as the problem that has to be solved is included in the analytical process.

Sampling principles, sample preparation, principles of analytical measurement, and analytical evaluation. Because of their significance, the stages signal generation, calibration, statistical evaluation, and data interpretation will be treated in separate chapters. 1 Principles of Sampling Sampling is the most important step in the course of the analytical process. It is essential for obtaining reliable analytical results that the samples are taken from the lot in a representative way. Therefore, sampling strategy and design, sampling technique and sample size must be harmonized in an optimum way.

Physical sample pretreatment. Almost all test samples, including those which are measured by so-called \direct techniques", need physical pretreatment in any form. The most applied physical techniques are: { Change in the physical state: freezing (freeze-drying), crystallizing, condensation, melting, pressure-pelletizing, vaporization etc. { Improvement of the form: grinding and homogenizing of solid and coarse materials { Surface state: polishing, sputtering or etching of rough surfaces of specimen { Preparation of electrically conductive mixtures and coatings on surfaces, respectively Chemical sample preparation.

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