By Chen Ru;Zhang Qiwang
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Thus case forms are what we call nominative, accusative, genitive, etc. Deep cases, on the other hand, are what Fillmore refers to as “the types of semantic relations that elements of sentence structures have with each other in context” (Fillmore 1977: 60). In other words, according to Fillmore deep cases are what we know nowadays as semantic/thematic/theta roles. , it represents semantic relations that underlie a sentence. Surface structure is a deep structure that underwent transformational rules and it represents the actual sentence we produce.
Modern linguistics is associated with syntactic, morphosyntactic, semantico-syntactic, pragmatic and formal semantic approaches, among many others. Some of the works on Russian case in modern linguistics were done by Babby (1980, 1986, 1987), Bailyn (1995), Bailyn and Citko (1999), Franks (1995), Green (1979), Kalyuga (2002), Kilby (1986); Korn (1967), Levine (1984, 1986) Mel’čuk (1998, 2006) Neidle (1982a, 1982b, 1988), Perelmutter (2005); Borschev and Partee (1999, 2004), Smith (1999), Timberlake (1975), Wierzbicka (1980), etc.
NSM relies on the reductive paraphrase of complex meanings into a metalanguage “constituted by a subset of ordinary language expressions claimed to represent universal primitive concepts” (Riemer 2006: 349). Hence, the fundamental assumption of NSM is that there are core indefinable meanings in every language – semantic primes – from which more complex meanings can be derived. A semantic prime is “a linguistics expression whose meaning cannot be paraphrased in any simpler terms” (Goddard and Wierzbicka 2002: 16).