By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph presents a global point of view on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been discovered over the last decade via study and sensible adventure on the way to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the booklet, basic medical concerns are awarded in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technological know-how, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the strange organic beneficial properties that happen within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy offers an outline of tools at the moment used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the booklet is a suite of nearby surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 ecu nations and Australia, and case experiences of varied person consultant lakes. a last case research presents an leading edge method of assessing the commercial price of latest pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a worthy instrument for choice makers.
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Additional info for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
Geochemical models have been developed (Müller et al. 2008; Salmon et al. 2008), but they still require the proper coupling of geochemical processes to density effects to properly reflect the evolution of stratification (Moreira et al. 2011). In many cases, mining has disrupted an equilibrium that had existed for many centuries or even millennia before. Removal of an overburden and lowering the water table has provided oxygen to layers where input had previously been very low. As a consequence, some mineral deposits have gained mobility, such as metal ions after oxidation of their sulfide deposits.
If a lake is temperature stratified during summer and covered by ice during winter, it usually experiences two separate stratification periods (stagnation), separated by two deep circulation periods. Such lakes are called dimictic. Usually lakes without an ice cover circulate sporadically during winter under appropriate weather conditions. These lakes are called monomictic, as they show one extended period of stratification and one period of (intermittent) full vertical circulation over an annual cycle.
The resulting hydrolysis of ferric iron, releases H+ ions, which directly affect the carbonate buffering system and hence lower the conductivity. As a consequence, the implementation of electrical conductivity as a tracer underlies some severe restrictions. 5 mS/cm at 25°C. Mine drainage can have considerably higher conductivities (see Fig. 1). As a consequence, the precipitation versus evaporation deficit in the eastern German summer shows up in high values of conductivity during summer stratification (Karakas et al.