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By Marcel Erdal

Previous Turkic is the earliest, without delay attested Turkic language. This unique paintings describes the grammar of previous Turkic. The language is documented in inscriptions within the 'runic' script in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin, from the 7th to the 10th century; in Uygur manuscripts from chinese language Turkestan in Uygur, and in runic and different scripts (comprising non secular – commonly Buddhist –, criminal, literary, clinical, folkloric, astrological and private material), from the 9th to the 13th century; and in eleventh-century Qarakhanid texts, as a rule in Arabic writing. All elements of previous Turkic are handled: phonology, subphonemic phenomena and morphophonology, and how those are mirrored within the a number of scripts, derivational and inflectional morphology, grammatical different types, note sessions, syntax, textual and extra-textual reference and different technique of coherence, lexical fields, discourse kinds, phrasing in addition to stylistic, dialect and diachronic edition.

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The 1976/1981 text finally appeared in print as part of OTWF. Röhrborn 1983a is about the syntactic behaviour of Indic loans. Nigmatov 1975 describes the semantic and syntactic functions of Qarakhanid case forms. Old Turkic verbal government is the topic of Amanžolov 1969, while Kuznecov 1971 describes clauses formed with -dOk in the inscriptions. Johanson on Turkic “hypotaxis” (1975) and on Turkic converb clauses (1995) is concerned also with Old Turkic. Schulz 1978 is a doctoral thesis on Old Turkic adjunct clauses.

Whether it is a ms. or a block-print, the latter appearing only under Mongol domination in the 13th century). The paper lists a number of linguistic criteria which can serve for placing texts into older or younger strata of the language, while Zieme 1981 and Bazin 1991 are concerned with extra-linguistic dating. Erdal 1979 thought that the appearance of the runiform letter ñ or the spelling NY in other writing systems is older than the change of /ñ/ to /n/ or /y/ though Zieme 1969: 173-182 had already stated that Manichæan texts could have a fluctuation between NY and N.

Moriyasu has done serious work on the diachronical palæography of the Uygur script, stating that what he calls the square style is found only in the pre-classical stage; the other three styles he posits are semisquare, semi-cursive and cursive, which is always late. For the phonological domain cf. Doerfer 1971. We already mentioned some of the work on the vowels of Old Turkic. Röhrborn 1996 is about synharmonism in foreign words. The introductions to BuddhKat (a text in Tibetan writing) and Maue 1996 contain valuable observations to the vowel system as emerging from these sources.

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