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By Ian D. Whyte

Professor Whyte's A Dictionary of Environmental historical past provides in one quantity a finished reference paintings protecting the earlier 12,000 years of the Earth's environmental historical past. An creation to the self-discipline is via nearly 1,000 entries overlaying key terminology, occasions, areas, dates, themes, in addition to the key personalities within the background of the self-discipline. Entries variety from shorter real debts to mammoth mini-essays on key themes and matters. absolutely cross-referenced with an intensive bibliography, this pioneering paintings offers an authoritative but obtainable source that would shape crucial interpreting for teachers, practitioners and scholars of environmental background and comparable disciplines.

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When these were flushed into the Aral Sea they caused ecological complications. Some reduction of the sea had been expected in the original irrigation plan but impacts on local climate and ecosystems were underestimated. 38 Aral Sea | Aran Islands Few scientists had foreseen that large amounts of salt would be blown from the dried-out lake bed on to agricultural land, causing salinization and loss of productivity. Between 1960 and 1987 around 27,000 km2 of lake bed became exposed. Around 43 million t of salt have been blown off the exposed lake bed each year and deposited over an area of 200,000 km2, damaging crops and harming soils.

The highest summit is Mont Blanc (4,808 m). The Alps provided a major barrier to the movement N of plants and animals from refuge areas after the last glaciation and also to humans through prehistory and history with most of the passes being blocked in winter. Lower passes like the Brenner were major arteries for trade but none of the passes was easy, explaining why Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps in 27 Alps 218BC to attack Rome was such a celebrated achievement. The Alps were rich in minerals and the first Iron Age culture in Europe is named Hallstat after a site S of Salzburg.

Other sites, like ones in the Danube gorges between Serbia and Romania, suggest the transformation of a native Mesolithic population. In Britain and S Scandinavia, more weight is now given to the transmission of new skills 20 agricultural origins: Europe | agricultural origins: the Near East and technologies to an indigenous Mesolithic population by limited numbers of immigrants. The slow pace of migration N and W across Europe was punctuated by more rapid advances, especially around 5500BC and 4000BC.

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