By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE instruction manual - basics covers simple ideas and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with examine subsidized through ASHRAE and others, this quantity comprises 39 chapters masking basic engineering details, easy fabrics, weather information, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were additional to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on this planet.
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Additional resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
With flow-metering devices such as orifices, venturis, and flow nozzles, there is little cavitation, because it occurs mostly downstream of the flow regions involved in establishing the metering action. The detrimental effects of cavitation can be avoided by operating the liquid-flow device at high enough pressures. When this is not possible, the flow must be changed or the device must be built to withstand cavitation effects. Some materials or surface coatings are more resistant to cavitation erosion than others, but none is immune.
In cases with no work interaction, no heat transfer, and no viscous frictional forces that convert mechanical energy into internal energy, this expression is constant and is known as the Bernoulli constant B: 2 v - gz § --p- · ---+ + ¨ U¸ = B 2 © ¹ (9) Alternative forms of this relation are obtained through multiplication by U or division by g: 2 Uv p + -------- + Ugz = UB 2 (10) 2 p v - + z = --B--- + U ----J 2g g (11) where J = Ug is the specific weight or weight density. Note that Equations (9) to (11) assume no frictional losses.
6 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals liquid is cooled or gas is heated, the velocity profile is more pointed for laminar flow (Figure 11). Calculations for such flows of gases and liquid metals in pipes are in Deissler (1951). Occurrences in turbulent flow are less apparent than in laminar flow. If enough heating is applied to gaseous flows, the viscosity increase can cause reversion to laminar flow. Buoyancy effects and the gradual approach of the fluid temperature to equilibrium with that outside the pipe can cause considerable variation in the velocity profile along the conduit.